T1 LOW CONCENTRATION AQUEOUS NANOFLUID ADDITIVE
SOLUTION FOR BOTH PERFORMANCE & SAFETY
Nanofluids are suspensions of nanoparticles mixed in liquids and its significant enhancement in some thermo-physical and combustion properties of the resulting suspension has been focused recently. Nanofluids and oxide reduction reactions between nanoscale metals have led to entire new classes of energetic materials.
Recent study proposes that suspensions of nanoenergetic materials in a liquid medium can be controllably ignited to provide a secondary release of thermal energy. The combustion products can then be captured and reprocessed into their original nanoparticle form for repeated use.
By using nanoparticles as a fuel additive improves high surface area to volume ratio, thermal conductivity, mass diffusivity, thermo-physical properties when mixed with fluid medium. Reduction in ignition delay is a direct consequence of increased thermal conductivity leading to accelerated internal heating and evaporation of nanofluid droplets. A study showed that by adopting the new functionalities of nanofluid, the reactivity and efficiency of propulsion and combustion vehicles has substantially improved.
T1 IS WATER BASED NANOFLUID
It is believed that the metal oxides in combination with the blended carrier scavenge water from the fuel system, utilising the oxygen component to increase combustion efficiency. Metal based additives have been reported to be effective in reducing diesel emissions in two ways: 1) the metals react with water vapour in the exhaust emissions to produce highly reactive hydroxyl radicals, and 2) the metals serve as an oxidation catalyst and thereby lower the oxidation temperature for diesel soot and lead to increased particle burn out.
Studies have shown that the addition of nanoparticles to water may substantially improve the thermal conductivity and mass transfer inside the fluid, even at low concentrations. This enhancement effect is dependent on temperature, and thus provides enhanced thermal transport and heat sink capabilities for fuels as well.
Water can react with metal nanoparticles during combustion to generate hydrogen, and hence, increase the nanofluid combustion heat. Hydrogen burns in a diesel engine in the presence of an active aqueous nanofluid. An engine performance parameter study revealed a noticeable reduction of 7% in specific fuel consumption with aluminium nanofluid. Another study indicated that the addition of the nano-alumina-water suspension has increased the brake thermal efficiency up to 5.5%, and reduced the relative fuel consumption up to 3.94%, compared to diesel fuel.
A study indicated that the micro-explosion phenomenon of the nano-sized water droplets in the emulsion fuel can accelerate fuel evaporation, and its mixing process with air, thus reducing the overall combustion duration. The study showed that the brake thermal efficiency of the engine was significantly improved by 14.2% compared to pure diesel when 10% emulsion fuel was used.
The increased NOx due to more efficient and higher temperature combustion it can be controlled with the addition of small quantity of water or a mixture of water/ethanol.
The metal nanoparticles present in a fuel additive can have high catalytic activity because of their large contact surface area per unit volume and can react with water at high temperature to generate hydrogen and improve fuel combustion.
T1 FORMULA IS ADDED TO FUEL WITH A RATIO OF 1000:1
TOTAL METAL NANOPARTICLES FROM T1 IN THE MIXED FUEL WOULD BE LESS THAN 0.1PPM
T1 Formula has tiny bit of nanoparticles stably suspended in water, and it give rise to exciting new properties and phenomena.
Those nanoparticles are diluted to 1000:1 when T1 is mixed with Fuel. This means that the vehicle safety and the environmental issue due to metal nanoparticle would not be the case for T1.
Through an insight on research publications, we have noticed that the performance enhancement cannot be achieved with every amount of nanoparticle addition. There are studies showing the additive dosed in very small portions 2-5mL/L. Various tests and experiments was performed and an 8-15% fuel saving was achieved. Selecting optimal range of nanoparticle addition as well as the base fluid preparation is the key to the miraculous performance of T1.
The above pictures show a brightness of butane gas combustion with and without T1 vapour. (a) Normal Combustion with butane gas (b) Combustion with butane gas and T1
Please note that T1 does not contain any hydrocarbon. The picture shows clearly that T1 can have catalytic combustion effect.
PRINCIPLE OF T1 FUEL ADDITIVE
Aqueous Nanofluid Combustion Catalyser
How is it possible to alter the fuel performance with such a little dosage of nanoparticles?
T1 is inspired by lightning phenomenon. It is all about the catalytic effect of static electricity. A single bolt of lightning contains 5 billion joules of energy, enough to power a household for a month. On the earth 14 billion times of lightning flash in a year. The energy of a thunderstorm equals that of an atom bomb.
We believe that a certain condition with metal nanoparticles can charge water droplets, creating "nanoparticle - water" cluster, which can show catalytic effect of fuel combustion. In this case, an electrical double-layer forms when a particle is placed in the dispersing medium. The interior layer is the surface charge of the nanoparticle, and the outer layer is the diffuse layer of water envelop. The nanoparticle work as the seed of the cluster, therefore we need only a minor quantity, while charged water does as the main job of catalysis.
Due to the coulomb repulsion, the charged cluster does not agglomerate and stay as fine mist form and mixes with air uniformly in the combustion chamber. The electrostatic binding within the cluster prevents water from entrapping the fuel, therefore air/fuel ratio stays the same.
REDUCED TEMPERATURE & ENHANCED UNIFORMITY
As the temperature and pressure of the combustion chamber increases, explosive breaking of the cluster prior to the main explosion will spread the ionised water and metal nanoparticles in the chamber uniformly. This explosive migration and collision will enhance the uniformity of air-fuel mixture in the chamber. Therefore combustion is catalysed.
The presence of the metal nanoparticles inside the combustion chamber augments the heat transfer to fuel and shortens the ignition delay through an acceleration of the burning process.
In this process, the heat is absorbed by the water or the cluster for evaporation. Therefore the combustion temperature would be lower, while the mechanical movement in the combustion is not reduces. Through this effect, NOx can be reduced.
In this cluster breaking process, some water molecule can create hydrogen, which helps with clean burning.
The metal oxide nanoparticles act as an oxygen donor, and provide oxygen for the oxidation of CO, or absorb oxygen for the reduction of NOx. This oxygen storage capability can be combined with hydrocarbon fuels and reduce soot formation.
Further, ions in T1 remove particle precursors. The ions inhibit the nucleation of particle precursors showing detergent effect.
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